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Robert Kipniss (1931‒), painter, printmaker, poet, and author, has had over 200 one-man shows since his first exhibition in New York in 1951. His printmaking began with lithographs, but since 1990, he has worked almost exclusively in intaglio, with the majority of his prints being mezzotints. His forms are reduced to essentials and his subject matter may be trees close up or at a distance, landscapes, or interiors. His use of exceptionally subtle black and white tones creates atmospheric effects of solitude and introspection. He is represented in the permanent collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Whitney Museum of American Art, both in New York City; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art; the New Orleans Museum of Art; the British Museum in London; the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris; and the Pinakothek der Moderne in Munich, among others. In 1980, he was elected to the National Academy of Design in New York City and to the Royal Society of Painter-Printmakers, London, in 1998. He lives in New York and Connecticut.